| új témakör |
Témakörök száma: 150  <<< 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 >>>
Jövő héten startol a Bár 2.0
létrehozta: tintapaca, 2008-09-10 21:05
legfrissebb: tintapaca, 2008-09-10 21:05
Csalás az egész
Szőke kapitány lenyomta Lelkes Emesét
létrehozta: kocsog, 2008-09-10 09:45
legfrissebb: kocsog, 2008-09-10 09:45
Ki a jobb? Szerintem az Emese kampányok nagyon jók lettek, leszámítva a legújabbat, ami igencsak gyenge lett. Lehet már nem kellett volna erőltetni...
Témákat vár a Médiaunió
létrehozta: www.UNIOHID.hu, 2008-07-01 10:57
legfrissebb: www.UNIOHID.hu, 2008-07-01 10:57
Aktuális az EUvonal Fórumának kérdése:
Egymásra talál-e a mediaUNIO és az UNIOhid ?
Új kiadó gondozásában a ZOOM Magazin
létrehozta: steinerg, 2008-06-11 20:28
legfrissebb: steinerg, 2008-06-11 20:28
Ha a Zoom Magazin ennyire sikeres, remélem, Radisics Milán úrnak végre eszébe jut a több éves, kétszázezer forint körüli tartozását kifizetni nekem, amit évek óta többször megígért, de az ígéret betartása úgy tűnik, nem erős oldala.
Egyébiránt szinte mindenkinek tartozik, aki valaha is írt a magazinba.
A szociális segély és munka
létrehozta: kkszsz, 2008-06-06 00:04
legfrissebb: kkszsz, 2008-06-06 00:04
Az én véleményem ill.hosonló koru társaimmal eggyütt nagyon elvagyunk keseredve.Mi rokkant nyugdijjasok vagyunk külömböző betegségekkel küzködünk és ráadásul 40és 45ezerFt-os nyugdij mellett magas gyogyszerköltségek mellet egyre magasabb árak mellettegyre csak le süllyedünk megélhetésünkéert küzdünk egyre kissebb eséllyel.Miéert csak azokkal foglalkoznak akiknek soha nem volt munkahelyük nem fizettek soha semmit sem de ezek az emberek állnak sórban a segélyekért a különböző támogatásokért.Arrol nem is beszélve hogy a segélyekért úgymennek hogy több százezer Ft-os aranylóg a nyakukban drága autókkal járnak játéktermekbe járnak több tagu családnál is ezeknél mindenki dohányzik ez havonta igencsak nagy összeg miből ?Talán az önkormányzato támogatják a játéktermeket a dohány gyárakat vagy az arany forgalmazókat?De erről ennyitÉn nem engedném meg azt hogy bárki 5 napért szociális segélyhez jusson hissz annyit kap mind aki ledolgozta az élete nagyrészét.Mert aza pár nap amit eltőlt az úgy nevezett önkormányzati munka az mögött nincs semilyen teljesitmény pld.közmunka?66 000Ft-ot keresnek ha le jelenkeznek mindennap ez ere mi felénk egy jó szakmával rendelkező bére olyané aki tanult éveket .és szakmunkás.Ez igy nevetséges!!!Debeszéljünk a munkanélküliségről is hogy hogs is van ez.A mi városunkban Kaposváron is igen nagy a munkanélküliség de a kőrnyékén is ezt tudják az önkormányzatok is tudják a munkaügyi központokban is de nem tesznek semmit sem az igaz hogy szerveznek tamfolyamokat sokállami pénzért aminek szerintem semmi értelmen incs ilyenfórmában.Csak a tanfolyam szervezők járnak jó miért kell pld.kőművesnek üzlet vezetői tanfolyam mi ért kell anyi vagyon őr sszinte már mindenkinek vagyonvédelmi végzettsége van.De beszéljünk a munkanélküliekről!!Az önkormányzatonál elég sok olyan munka van ami kötelező feladatok közé tartozik.Ezeket a munkákat azönkormányzat meg hívásosvagy pályázat utján álltalában ugyan annak a cégne de mondhatom azt is hogy annak avállalkozónak agyja oda akinek az az érdeke hogy minnél tőbbért vállalja és minnél kevesebb kiadása legyen tehát kevesebb emberi erőt vegyen igénybe.ezeknek az embereknek van állitólag referenciájuk akkór is ha a munkák nagy részét nem is ők végzik v agy az egésszet ki adják alvállakkozónak aki elvégrzi igaz az is hogy legtőbb estben ezeket ki sem fizetik.De ha olyan sok amunkanélküli akkor miért adják ki a munkát ilyen vállalkózónak-Nekünk van egySzociális Szövetkezetünk amit azért hoztunk létre hogy a hátrányos helyzetü embereket segetsünk a munkanélkülieknek rászorúlóknak munkát biztositsunk hogy kötelező önkormányzati feladatokat ellátása.Igy ákár 50-60 embernek lehetne munkát adni a megélhetésüket az elszegényesedésüket cskkenteni hogy a saját rezsiköltségüket ki tudják fizetni,de sajnos ez nem igy van nem igy müködik lehet nem érdeke annak aki ezen változtathatna.Az emberek nagyonelvannak keseredve ezek az emberek már nem birják a további ár emeléseket ezek az embere ki mennek az utcára több százan több ezren:Nagyon úgy néz ki hogy teljesen mindegy hogy ki van a hatalmon a szegények egyre szegényednek a megélhetésükért küzdenek a gazdagok meg egyre inkább gazdagodnak nagy ingatlanokat építenek drága terepjárókkal autókkal járnak.Ezen valahogy kellene válltoztatni hogy hogyan most ezen dolgozunk.Mi a megélhetésünkért bármilyen munkát elvállalnánk pedig mi nekünk szakmánk is van és hosszu éveket dolgoztunk munkaviszonyban is.Ha a levelünket el olvassák és felkeltette a figyelmüket és lesz rá lehetőségük akkor ezekkel a problémákkal is kellene foglalkozni. Van egys egyesületünk is DolgozniMegélniVágyokEgyesülete TisztelettelKadlicskó Pál és Jánosek László
Él-e az Olimpia adta márkázási lehetőségekkel Kína?
létrehozta: mikike, 2008-05-26 22:52
legfrissebb: mikike, 2008-05-26 22:52
Writing a column on the military history of Tibet seemed like a good idea in the
good old days, a week ago, before I started actually trying to research it. I’ve never, ever had a
harder time finding decent info on a topic. One reason is sheer shame; the Brits, for instance,
don’t want anybody to know they invaded Tibet in 1904 and slaughtered a whole bunch of Tibetans for no
reason except they were bored.
But some of the stuff on Tibetan military history is just so damn weird it made me feel like that
scene in Ghostbusters where Rick Moranis gets possessed by some ancient demon and starts ranting:
“During the rectification of the Vuldronaii the Traveller came as a very large and moving Torb.
Then of course in the third reconciliation of the last of the Meketrex supplicants they chose a new
form for him, that of a Sloar. Many Shubs and Zuuls knew what it was to be roasted in the depths
of the Sloar that day I can tell you.”
I always liked that last bit, “…I can tell you.” Gives that human touch, especially from a
five-foot-nothing little dweeb like Moranis. But let me tell you, that story about the Torb and the Shubs
was light reading compared to what I’ve been digging through to research medieval Tibetan
military history. Here’s an example from Karl-Heinz Everding’s lively little article, “The Mongol States
and their Struggle for Dominance over Tibet in the 13th century”:
“…The troops of approximately ten myriarchies of Central Tibet (Tib. dbus gtsang) marched toward
the [Stod Hor—the Mongol army, I think—GB]. They met on the dpal mo dpal thang. [Oh, that thang!—GB
Sorry, couldn’t resist.] The ten myriarchies of Tibetan troops defeated the many hundreds of
thousands of Stod Hor troops. As proof of having killed many thousand Hor, they cut off only the right
ears [of the dead] and put them into many donkey loads (Tib. ‘drel khal). Having made Gad du Rin
chen and the Dgon pa dbon prisoner and having taking [sic] them along, the ears started stinking.
After they had exposed them to the sun on a cool plain, the stone enclosure where the [smell]
disappeared, is today known as ‘stone enclosure of the ears’ (Tib. Rna ba’i lhas).”
And that’s one of the lighter bits. If life has been too easy and fun for you lately, you’re
welcome to read the whole article in a volume with the catchy, original title of “Tibet: Past and
It’s a funny thing about writing columns on war: some pretty insignificant conflicts have tons of
stuff written about them, and others, big and important wars, get no press at all. Like when I had
to write about the Algerian civil wars, there was nothing any good about them anywhere.
Sometimes it’s a language problem, like with Algeria, where anything that might be any use was in
French or Arabic. That was part of the problem reading up on Tibet, because I don’t read Chinese
and there’s no translation program for Chinese that seems to work. (If anybody knows of one, let me
know.) But there’s a much bigger problem: Tibetans are steppe people, inland Asian people, which
makes them alien to us Western sea-oriented cultures, just like Mongols are alien to us. I found
that out back when I was a huge fan of the Mongols—well, I still am, but I’m content to worship the
Khans from afar now; back then I wanted to learn everything about them. So I checked out a book
called “The Secret History of the Mongols,” supposedly written by a tame scribe taking dictation
from the Khans’ family genealogist himself.
That book defeated me as one-sidedly as the British defeated the Tibetans in their 1904. That’s
right, by the way, the Brits invaded Tibet just a hundred-odd years ago, though nobody seems to
remember. I’ll get to that later. My point here is that after I read the “Secret History of the
Mongols” I knew less than I did before. Or maybe I just knew once and for all that much as I admire the
Mongol warriors, I’ll never really understand how they thought.
The Tibetans are even harder to figure out, because on top of that Central Asian weirdness is all
this Richard-Gere do-gooder nonsense about the peace-loving Tibetans assaulted by the ruthless Red
Chinese. Both parts of that story are wrong, wrong, wrong. The Tibetans were never peaceful
people at all. They were one of the most warlike peoples in Central Asia and even conquered the Chinese
capital, Chang’An, in their heyday. And the Red Chinese—who could be brutal when the situation
called for it, sure—were actually very decent when they took over Tibet in 1950. They felt bad about
it at the time, a weird mixture of professional military embarrassment and sheer pity, taking the
PLA, battle-hardened from twenty years of fighting the Kuomintang and the Imperial Japanese, into
battle against the “Tibetan Army,” such as it was.
The military history of Tibet divides pretty clearly into two parts: the glory days of the 7th-9th
century, when Tibet actually challenged China for dominance in south-central Asia, and the sad,
slow decline ever since, where the slogan would be: “Tibet, where old meets new and loses.” The
Chinese takeover in 1950 was just the latest in a series of one-sided defeats for Tibet.
The invasion was organized by one of Mao’s best generals, a short little dude with a knack for
one-liners and a can-do attitude. You may have heard of him: Deng Hsiao-Peng. The guy who brought
down the Gang of Four, coined the anti-Cultural Revolution line, “It doesn’t matter if a cat is black
or white as long as it catches mice”? Yeah, him. He had one of his classic lines about how
organizing the attack on poor ol’ Tibet made him feel: “….like a tiger trying to catch a fly.” They
love those animal sayings, the Chinese. Don’t like actual animals much, but they love to make them
into proverbs—or soup, depending on whether it’s quip-time or lunchtime.
Deng only requested 80,000 troops for the invasion—not much for the PLA and its alleged addiction
to human-wave tactics. The plan was always to do an Invasion Lite, with lots of talk about the
ancient friendship of Tibet and China—which was also a lie, of course.
Against the Chinese the Tibetans had not so much an army as a mobile family campground—the Tibetan
soldiers took their whole families with them on maneuvers. The governor of Tibet’s eastern
province called the Lamas back in Lhasa to say, “Umm, I’ve got Chinese massing on the border, Your
Holiness Sir!” He was told that it was very impertinent of him to bother the Holy Administrators
because they were on their annual picnic. I’m sorry but it’s hard to feel much sympathy with a country
When the Chinese crossed the border, the Tibetans fought as well as they could, which was pretty
damn badly. Their army was mostly cavalry, a lot of it still armed with swords. There were about
200 artillery pieces and about that many machine guns to defend the whole country. The Chinese
veteran soldiers, who’d marched thousands of miles and fought every kind of enemy, couldn’t believe it
when they saw Tibetans charging them with swords raised. They didn’t so much defeat the Tibetans
as restrain them, the way you would an escaped lunatic. “Whoa, take it easy there fella, c’mon, put
down the sword before somebody gets hurt….” They could have wiped out the entire Tibetan force
like the British did in similar circumstances in 1904, but whatever else you can say about the
ChiComs, they were a lot harder on their own people than on foreigners, and they just flat-out pitied
the Tibetans. They got the captured Tibetan soldiers together and lectured them on socialism—they
were big believers in motivational seminars, those Maoists, talk your ear off—then gave the
Tibetans money and noodles and a pat on the back and told them to go home and not play with swords any
If there were any Tibetan war nerds around in 1950, which is kind of hard to imagine, then it must
have been a hard day for them. But they should have seen it coming, because the Brits had invaded
Tibet just a half-century before—and they weren’t nearly as nice to the Tibetans. I keep telling
you guys, you’ve got the completely wrong idea about the Brits. You’ve been watching too many of
those BBC comedies where everybody’s cute and harmless. The Brits, up to the mid-20th-century, were
stone killers, the most ruthless conquerors of the past thousand years.
They invaded Tibet in 1904 basically because they were bored. I’m serious. They owned everything
on the planet worth having, so they were always having to invent new “menaces” to get funding for
more invasions, grabbing the places they hadn’t considered worth taking in their earlier waves of
conquest. So in the late 1800s they started talking up the Russian “threat” to swarm over the
Himalayas and take away India. That was such utter crap that even the Brits talking up the threat must
have had a laugh about it over their port, back at the officers’ club. Russia was weak, so weak
that the Japanese crushed it on land and sea in 1905. The British knew Russia was in no position to
threaten India. What they wanted was an easy conquest that would produce lots of medals, honors,
stuff to wear on their chests in the London social season so they could snag an heiress and never
have to work. So they invaded Tibet.
The guy who ran that invasion, Francis Younghusband, was quite a piece of work himself. One of
those India-born Brits, who were generally fiercer and crazier even than the homegrown English. And
he had that other feature that makes for a really ruthless conqueror: he was, like his biographers
say, “deeply religious.” If you hear that about a guy who’s about to invade your country, go down
to the basement, hoard lots of water and canned goods, and try to make yourself invisible for the
next few years, because it’s not going to be pretty.
Younghusband marched into Tibet in December 1903 with a force of Sikhs and Gurkhas—pretty scary
mix, like rottweiler plus pit bull. And the Gurkhas were definitely the pit bulls in that pair.
Sikhs are very tough but not blood-crazy. The Gurkhas were not only devoted lovers of knife-work,
especially on POWs, but ancient enemies of the Tibetans. It didn’t take much to push them to a
massacre. The Tibetans knew the British were dangerous and tried not to resist at all. But as the British
force pushed farther and farther into Tibet, the local commanders decided to resist. That was a
mistake. This wasn’t Tony Blair’s cool Britannia they were dealing with. On March 31, 1904,
Younghusband encountered a Tibetan militia force of about 2000 guarding a pass near Gyantse. He must have
had a hard time keeping a straight face or wiping the drool from his lips, thinking about the
medals he’d get for this one, because the Tibetans were armed either with spears and swords or at
best with matchlock muskets. That’s right: the kind of 17th-century firearm that won’t fire unless
you apply the smouldering wick to the firing pan. Younghusband decided to play with the poor fuckers
he was facing. He said, “My friends, my friends, what’s all this hostility? Why dees paranoia?
Here, I’ll tell MY soldiers to take the bullets out of their rifles, and you tell YOUR soldiers to
put out the flame of their matchlocks.” The Tibetans, who had no idea that Younghusband’s troops
had modern repeating rifles, put out their matchlocks. Younghusband then ordered his troops to open
fire. 1300 Tibetans were killed, with almost no British casualties.
Younghusband thought it was a great triumph. But this was already late in the Imperial era and the
people back home had had enough of this kind of triumph; in fact, it sort of made them sick. The
whole thing was hushed up, and remains hushed up to this day—ask any Brit you know if they ever
heard of their invasion of Tibet and I guarantee they’ll plead ignorance. It’s probably better that
way, makes it easy to put one of those “Free Tibet” rising-sun stickers on your Land Rover without
feeling like a hypocrite.
It’s much easier to be a do-gooder about Tibet if you’re totally ignorant of Central Asian
history, like the days when Tibetan conquerors filled up whole carts with the ears of guys they’d killed.
Even this idea that Tibet is the homeland of Buddhism, the most Buddhist place on the planet, is
crap; Tibet got Buddhism very late, trying it on a couple of times before it took.
The glory days of Tibet were before Buddhism, which is probably not a coincidence. If I had to
respect any religion it’d be the Buddhists because they’re quiet and they seem pretty well-behaved,
but it’s not the kind of creed you’d want to conquer with. Before you got your army out the door,
some annoying Zen type would be saying in that quiet serious voice they put on, “Is not the
greatest conquest that of peace?” To which you’d have to say, “No, it’s a tossup between Alexander and
the Mongols and would you please put your neck a little farther out the door? It’s at a bad angle
for me from there.” And that wouldn’t set the tone for a happy war of conquest, the local monk
getting his head blown off at the start.
The Tibetans in their conquering days—which means roughly in Charlemagne’s time—were followers of
something called Bon, or Bun, which sounds either like the department store in Seattle or part of
a hamburger, but apparently was some sort of mix of Taoist magic and Mongol shamanism. Sounds
pretty fun. And it worked as a military religion, almost as good as Mithras or Anglicanism. The
Tibetans had a fearsome reputation as warriors who were honored to die in battle, thought they were
headed for their version of Valhalla, which would probably involve big vats of tea with yak-butter and
maybe central heating if they were especially worthy.
The little I’ve been able to find out about medieval Tibetan armies came mostly from a great site
I found where Chinese military buffs get together and talk about really cool stuff, like why the
Tibetans had a reputation for particularly tough, impenetrable body armor.
According to these Chinese war nerds, who really seem to know their stuff, the Tibetans’ main
weapon was something like the Persian/Byzantine cataphract or heavily armored cavalryman, and they
used mail to cover the horse as well as the rider. According to their enemies, the Tang-dynasty
Chinese warriors, the Tibetans were excellent with the sword and spear but weak on missile weapons,
i.e. archery. One of the cool details I read on this China History Forum site and can’t help
mentioning even though it’s kind of off-topic is how the Tang armies dealt with barbarian enemies who wore
lacquered armor: they fired burning arrows into the breastplates! Whoa! “One clay-pot barbarian
roasted in shellac, coming up! Rice or noodles with that?”
The Tibetan Empire these warriors protected stretched from the Silk Road to the Bay of Bengal.
Tibetans ruling Bangladeshis—wish I could’ve seen that. Sitting there in the felt boots they never
took off from one year to the next, pouring sweat like the Abominable Snowman in Bugs Bunny: “Gosh
Seriously though, heat was a real danger to steppe armies. The Mongols actually abandoned part of
what’s now Pakistan because they just said fuck it, it’s too hot. Not that they couldn’t handle
heat, but they expected the occasional nice refreshing blizzard out of Siberia to cool themselves
and their beloved ponies off. Uninterrupted heat, year-round, they considered disgusting and
unnatural. And speaking as a fat man, I have to say I agree. (There were fat Mongols, by the way. Subotai
was so fat no pony would carry him. You skinny people think you own everything.)
Climate seems crucial to the whole idea of a Tibetan empire. I mean, have you seen a map of Asia?
Tibet is one big flat mountaintop. Only place in the world as high and dry as Tibet is the Andean
highlands in South America. Now there they grew potatoes; what did the Tibetans grow to feed their
armies? I haven’t been able to find out yet, but one thing that occurred to me is that the era
when the Tibetan empire was going strong was the same time the Vikings pushed into the far north and
even set up a colony in Greenland. It was one of those warm phases you get every few centuries,
when some Dark-Ages Al Gore starts shrieking, “Global warming! ‘Tis Satan’s work! We’re doomed!”
But more enterprising conquerors see opportunity, like the sales seminars say, where doomsayers see
only crisis. Warm weather meant the Norsemen could pop out enough kids to send the long ships into
every creek in Eurasia. And I’m thinking maybe it meant the Tibetans could have their day in the
sun too—before those ears started to stink.
So if the planet really does warm up again, who knows? Watch out, all you tropical products: the
Norse might ride again! The Tibetans might grow enough barley or whatever to march on Beijing!
Yeah. Those are about equally likely. Makes a nice fantasy though.
létrehozta: publikator, 2008-03-03 07:09
legfrissebb: t.diana, 2008-03-21 12:20
• Fenyő Miklós a Hungária együttes vezetője, az egykori fotós, a Vico tulajdonos Fenyő keresztneve helyesen: János.
• Üzeni: R. I. A., www.szivtars.hu
Városokért korteskedik a Rádió Plusz
létrehozta: Bodri, 2008-02-18 14:36
legfrissebb: Bodri, 2008-02-26 17:09
Iszonyú a passzivitás. Semmi publikáció, semmi motiválás. Legalább arról tehetnénk, hogy elterjedjen a hír. Érdemes megnézni az első 5 helyezettet... ( http://monopolyworldvote.com/hu_HU/world )
Új helyi rádió fogható Zalaegerszegen
létrehozta: maraiteam, 2007-12-25 13:39
legfrissebb: maraiteam, 2007-12-25 13:39
Sziasztok töbször kértem sms- ben töletek Summer love számot de soha nem adtátok le ennek mi az oka?
Pedig a ti rendezvényeteken az eső ellenére is feléptek és sikerük volt! szeretném tudni az okát? mért nem? www.summerlove.hu
Hirtelen menesztették az igazgatót és munkatársait
létrehozta: fazekasa, 2007-12-14 17:16
legfrissebb: fazekasa, 2007-12-14 17:16
vagyis konkrétan: közös megegyezéssel
Témakörök száma: 150  <<< 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 >>>